שווקים in Ashes of Creation are regional, which means that each market has its own character. Because resources will shift locations as they’re exhausted, this will keep people moving about the world, seeking out the best resources for their crafting builds, and the best markets for their goods.
- There will be no central auction house or warehouse.
- There will be item decay and other ways to combat inflation.
- There will be player to player trading.
One major feature in our economy that differs from most fantasy style MMOs is that we're not approaching it from a global scale. Rather, we're trying to carve the world up into regions and make each one focus independently, while of course at the same time working together. – Peter Pilone
- 1 Economic regions
- 2 Buying and selling
- 3 Player to player trading
- 4 Theft
- 5 Storage
- 6 קרוואנים
- 7 שיעורי אומן
- 8 Player owned businesses
- 9 Taxes
- 10 שחיקה של חפצים
- 11 Security systems
- 12 מנהל העולם
- 13 Trade agreements
- 14 Sharemarket
- 15 Real estate
- 16 Artwork
- 17 See also
- 18 הפניות
- Castle regions are larger and encompass multiple economic regions.
- צמתים are the glue that hold castle and economic regions together in potential synergy or chaos.
- Castle regions, Economic regions, and Node אזור השפעה (Zones of Influence) can overlap.
Buying and selling
|דוכנים||Personal shops||Auction houses|
דוכנים (also called Kiosks and rental stalls) are rentable locations near the unique building in an Economic node or in שווקים מרכזיים (the constructible building available for placement by mayors of any Town (stage 4) node or higher).
All nodes do have the ability to spawn player stalls. If you're not an economic node and you don't have a market- that's essentially your unique building- then you can construct essentially what is I guess would be called a... marketplace; and that marketplace will then come with certain services and it will come with a certain number of stalls. The economic node as I recall has the ability to construct an auction house and the auction house serves through the economic means the ability to list and sell items and that comes with additional stalls as well for the players. – Steven Sharif
- Player stalls are rentable by node citizens.
- Player stalls may be utilized for a period of time based on the price paid to rent the stall.
- Player stalls are linked to a player's warehouse.
- Players are not able to be attacked or robbed while occupying their player stall inside the limits of a node.
- Player stalls do not require the attendance of the character or for that character to be online.
- Bulletin boards that list the items available in player stalls can be accessed from anywhere in the region.
- These give the location of the stall so players can travel there and purchase the items.
- Stall sales are also listed in auction houses.
- This may no longer be accurate.
- Players are able to input required items for repair and also purchase required materials for that repair.
- Player stalls may still operate during node siege declaration. This is subject to testing.
- These certificates allow the placement of a personal shop near the unique building in an economic node or on a freehold.
- When a character creates a personal shop, a billboard pops up above them with a custom advertisement message for items or services available on that character's person. Purchasers can interact directly with the character to purchase these items or services.
A player shop is where you have a certificate to essentially create a shop with your character and a little billboard will pop up above you as you sit down for that shop and advertise a custom message that you want say that has to sell things and/or services that are on your person. So players can then come up to you and they can interact with you. So you reside yourself to that shop. – Steven Sharif
- שווקים in Village level economic nodes have auction houses that allow raw resources and processed goods to be posted.
- Exchanges in Town nodes have expanded auction houses that allow all goods/items to be posted.
- צמתים כלכליים that have reached the metropolis stage unlock the linked economy superpower.
- Up to two economic metropolises may be linked in this manner.
- מטרופולין level economic nodes enable worldwide sale prices for auction houses across ורה.
- Items listed in one linked economic node can be bid on from any other linked economic node.
- Linked economies also connect an economic metropolis and its vassal economic nodes.
If a Node is the Vassal Node of an Economic Node, an Auctioneer NPC appears in that Vassal Node. The Auctioneer allows players to list non-resource/processed materials in the Parent Node’s Auction House, but players cannot bid on items from this Auctioneer. These resources and processed materials must be stored within an Economic Node in order to be listed in that Node’s Auction House. In order to bid, they must still travel to the Auction House in the Parent Node.
- A listing fee will be charged to list items in the auction house.
- צמתים צמיתים of the auction house node will be able to view items that are listed on that auction house, regardless of node type of the vassal node.
- Items listed are also visible in community boards (bulletin boards).
- Integrated auction houses allow players to purchase items directly from remote auction houses.
- Purchases of materials and gatherables will be automatically deposited within the listing node's local warehouse. Players will need to travel to that warehouse to retrieve them. Players wishing to move these items elsewhere will need to utilize the caravan system or other type of transportation.
- Purchases of anything other than materials and gatherables will be mailed to the purchaser.
- A market UI lists the current items available for sale in the node and in the same economic region.
- Encourage localized grouping.
- Enable posting of jobs.
- Quest sponsorship.
Player to player trading
- Q: Will Ashes of Creation have player-to-player trading? Will there be anything stopping me from gifting a friend that's fresh to the game a bunch of in-game money to help them get on their feet quickly?
- A: There won't be anything to stop you from doing that. – Steven Sharif
We're going to have a UI... you're gonna put the resources in or they're gonna put the resources in. It'll be like an escrow system and then once [the job] is complete you'll get the item they'll get the money.
- Raw gatherables and materials are not able to be mailed by players.
- It hasn't been decided whether crafted items such as gear will be able to be sent via mail.
From an item standpoint obviously we can't allow mailing to include any type of resource material or raw gatherable because those are central to the gameplay and transiting through the caravan system and economic regions. But it may be possible to send completed crafted items like you know gear, equipment, stuff like that. But it's something we're still discussing. – Steven Sharif
כבילה של ציוד
- מעט מאוד ציוד יהיה כבול למשתמש או כבול נשמה באפר היצירה.
- ניתן להשיג ציוד בעזרת יצירה, איסוף, ועיבוד ביחד עם פשיטות ובוסים של מבוכים.
הרבה ממה שחווינו במשחקים שבדרך כלל מגיעים לפנינו זה שהרבה דברים כבולים למשתמש והם כבולים לשחקן שלך... אצלנו במקום זאת, מעט מאוד יהיה כבול למשתמש. מעט מאוד מאוד. הרוב המכריע של הציוד- כן אתם תקבלו ציוד ממשימות כתגמול - אך לא נניח סט אחד שנמצא במבוך אחד ואתם חייבים לעשות את המבוך שוב ושוב. במקום זאת אנו רוצים להדגיש ממש את ההסתמכות על הכלכלה ועל בעלי המלאכה והלקטים והמעבדים כדי שיהוו את רוב מערכת הציוד במשחק, בשילוב עם פשיטות על בוסים עולמיים, ובוסים של מבוכים; לא קו משימה שחוזר על עצמו במבוך בודד. – Steven Sharif
- There may be quest related actions that involve some form of stealing, but not of actual items from a player's inventory, where the player is identified as the quest's target via a title or some other means.
That kind of emergent gameplay is obviously the objective behind how can we accommodate a non-static quest-line; and the way you do that is you can apply a flag to a title and whoever holds that title becomes the target of that quest segment. And this can change too because that title can change- you know different people might rise up in the ranks of different societies and organizations. – Steven Sharif
- Players are not able to be robbed while occupying their player stall inside the limits of a node.
- Warehouses may enable a player to transfer non-material goods between alts. This excludes resources, materials or anything that relies on the caravan system.
- Players are prohibited from moving goods out of depositories within a node following a siege declaration against that node.
- דוכנים are linked to that player's warehouse.
- A portion of all Materials (crafting components) and Gatherables that were stored in successfully sieged nodes become lootable to the victors of the siege as spoils of war.
- Personal caravans may launched from any point of storage (including warehouses).
Player housing storage
- Players must obtain and place storage containers in their player-owned housing.
- Different grades of storage containers have different inventory capacities.
- There are restrictions on the grades of storage containers available in different types of houses.
- Access permissions can be set to allow others to access a player's personal storage devices.
- Players are prohibited from moving goods out of depositories within a node following a siege declaration against that node.
- Personal caravans may launched from any point of storage (including chests).
- Banking between characters will likely be restricted to Furniture and completed items.
- A warehouse ability may enable a player to transfer non-material goods between alternate characters. This excludes resources, materials or anything that relies on the caravan system.
- Caravans are for transfer of personal goods and quests as well as supplies for castles and nodes.
- Caravans can transport goods for more than one player.
- Naval caravans are capable of transitioning to and from land caravans at the point of intersection of land and ocean.
- These caravans will come in varying sizes and capacities.
- By default naval caravans have a racial appearance. Players will be able to apply caravan skins to change this appearance.
- It is possible to master multiple professions (but not all) within this mastered artisan class.
- התפתחות within artisan classes does not relate to a player's progression in their adventuring class.
- Choice of profession does not affect a player's stats.
Crafting and gathering is a very important component of the economy that players will have direct control over. Whether you wish to build a sprawling plantation around your house, or wish to travel the vast wilderness in search of treasure and resources.
- Armor smithing
- Jewel crafting
- Ship building
- Siege weapons
- Weapon smithing
Artisan supply chain
Artisans within Ashes of Creation must choose a path in their artisan skill tree. This inter-dependency establishes a supply chain from raw materials to finished product. Each stage of the chain may require caravans to transport goods from one artisan to another.
- Obtaining raw materials:
- Refining the raw materials with the עיבוד profession.
- יצירה the finished product using its crafting recipe.
As a crafter you're going to want to know where certain recipes can be fulfilled; which nodes have the capability of creating what you've processed material that you've gathered for; and then you're going to want to plan out your route to either transit the goods there or make sure that you're situated in the area so that you can go out collect and build in that area as well. So there's a lot of planning that's going to be necessary. – Steven Sharif
Player owned businesses
- משימות that might only be gathered from the player-owned taverns.
- Meals that grant buffs for a period of time after a player leaves.
- Recipes that could potentially be sold to cooking professions, that may only be obtained from a player-owned business in a certain area.
- Tax money only goes toward funding node development.
- Taxation rates scale based on when a player joined a node as a citizen. The goal is to exert financial pressure on node populations by making taxes increasingly expensive as nodes advance, rather than putting in place hard population caps.
- This tax doesn't necessarily impact the individual citizen, because citizen's tax levels are determined by their node, but the node's finances are affected by the taxation levied by its parent nodes.
- A player's tax charge will be determined by the number of structures built on their plot.
- A castle's region is 1/5th the game world.
- Castle regions, Economic regions, and Node אזור השפעה (Zones of Influence) can overlap.
- Castle region boundaries are static.
- Castle taxes are carried via NPC generated caravans from the nodes that fall under the castle's purview to one of the castle nodes at the end of each week leading up to a castle siege.
- In addition to taxes, Castles also influence crop yields, resources and events within its region.
- Part of the tax and resources gathered are applied to the castle for improvements.
- The remainder of tax income can be used by the guild for whatever they want.
- When castles change hands (following a siege), some taxes stay with the castle and some stay with the guild.
שחיקה של חפצים
- Item durability (item decay). Zero percent durability will unequip an item, increasing its repair costs.
- Over-enchanting carries the risk of destroying that item.
- Players gain craftable items and recipes from deconstructing (salvaging) completed items.
- A portion of resources and materials are lost when caravans or nodes are destroyed.
An important aspect of a healthy economy is having some item sinks available... There are three kinds of item sinks: You can gain craftable items from deconstructing completed items; You can have decay... and if you want to over-enchant that item there will be a potential to destroy it as well. It's important for an economy to experience those types of emphasis on what can be crafted as well as seeing those items that are crafted be destroyed as well..
The concept there is this is part of the engine that is supply and demand. So the server is constantly generating these materials on tick as they kind of propagate throughout the world and get repopulated, players are going out there and collecting these things. We want to make sure that there is a driving force and factor behind what crafters and gatherers are out there doing: There's constantly going to be a demand for them to supply these things. Whether that death is from PvP or from PvE these are going to be necessities for players to constantly provide. – Steven Sharif
- Item durability loss occurs on death.
- Over enchanting an item comes with the risk of durability loss.
- Materials are required in order to repair restore the performance of decayed items.
- Zero percent durability will unequip an item, increasing its repair costs.
The decay system is not going to be some worthless "Oh I'm just going to throw some gold into this and it's a simple gold sink". It's actually going to require some base materials in order to repair decayed items; and decay occurs from death and also the destruction and disable system. For the weapons over the over-enchanting will require those materials as well. So creating that dependency I think is healthy for the crafting economy. – Steven Sharif
There is durability in the game... It's not going to be a trivial durability. There is a potential to destroy gear (weapons and armor), but there is also an ability to reforge that destroyed gear using a portion of the materials necessary as well as finding an item creator who can reforge it. – Steven Sharif
Power creep is a balance issue... When it comes to gear progression specifically, the idea is to create an open market that is not heavily dependent on soulbound items; and having many item sinks and gold sinks within that economy that allows for the potential degradation and loss of assets within that closed economy; and not introduce items from the market that companies put in from a pay-to-win perspective or from a pay-to-convenience perspective that undermines the economy that players have built. That is a huge mistake that companies have made in the past and that lends to the imbalancing of what designers maybe have actually balanced well. – Steven Sharif
- These systems collect user data and flag abnormal activities for inspection. This combined with player reporting functions generates a live "heat map" that draws attention to unusual behavior.
- Players caught cheating will be banned.
- There will be a standard escalation system, where different actions are taken based on the seriousness of each infraction. Actions could range anywhere from being stripped (of the illegitimate items or currency) to being banned for a period of time, or being permanently banned.
The direction that I'm taking Intrepid as a company in is that a significant portion of the revenue created by the game goes into not only creating additional content and updates for the game but also goes into I think caretaking, as I like to call it; and that caretaking is multiple things: It's having active and present GM's on servers. It's having a an interacting community team that is always present and on-call for participating in forum discussions and streams and updates. – Steven Sharif
Following a standard approach to an escalation system where certain infractions are immediate and automatic bans and some infractions provide a path forward where action is taken that might ban the account or strip the account or provide some chat bans or the ability to play over a week or so... If you buy gold and depending on the the seriousness of the infraction you could go anywhere from being stripped and to being banned for a period of time to being permanently banned. – Steven Sharif
The מנהל העולם is an algorithm in Ashes of Creation that controls dynamic world elements. It acts as both a throttle and an incentive system for various activities to ensure certain parameters are within acceptable thresholds.
- Prices of hunting certificates.
- A heatmap of experience being gained to apply to node advancement.
- Transit of resources and goods between regions to drive quest rewards for nodes.
For example if you know iron is being used as a raw resource for a specific crafting path that might drive up the price of mithril or silver; and that will incentivize the market to course correct a little bit. The idea is to provide soft incentives that help to alleviate the demand and also to prop up the supply that might not be present from the economic systems. – Steven Sharif
- Hunting certificates is a term that covers items, such as Pelts that house the value of a mob's death. These certificates are specific to an economic region.
- A wolf is not going to be carrying a sack of gold. It may instead drop "pelts" that can be traded for gold.
- Hunting certificates will also drop on a character's death.
- Hunting certificates can be traded with hunter דמויות ללא שחקן within nodes.
- The level of the node and the distance of the node from the drop will determine the value of the certificate. Certificates redeemed from distant economic regions via the caravan system will provide higher returns (4 to 5 times greater in some cases) than certificates collected from the same region.
- The value of the certificates are also calculated (by the world manager algorithm) based on the volume of certificates being redeemed in each region.
- Hunting certificates can also be stored within node warehouses.
- There is a much higher chance that materials and unique recipes are dropped that can be used to craft items of equitable value.
- There is a small RNG chance of looting rare and legendary items or crafting materials from mobs based on the level, status and type of mob. This also applies to harvesting resources with a gathering profession.
- Legendary equipment is only dropped by Legendary world bosses.
- Stats on dropped items will vary based on the rarity of the item.
Population based scaling
Things that NPCs buy and sell kind of scale based on the economic activity that exists on that server... As inflation rises, prices rise and everything kind of ends up being equal, even though there might be a couple of extra zeros. So that can go up and it can also go down so as a population leaves, things become less expensive and players don't have to do as much to earn that. On the other side of things we look at the node system and the node system is set up in this really flexible way that allows us to scale the experience needed to level a node and the attrition that delevels a node to scale based on activity too. So you know it's just a matter of adjusting a couple of constants and that goes up and down and the server can watch it and change those on the fly as it needs to. – Jeffrey Bard
שלטון הצומת can enter into trade agreements with other nodes. Each node entering into the agreement can designate caravans with materials to be sent to the other; improving the economy of both nodes. This gives experience to all involved, contributes to the node’s growth and helps to construct buildings.
Mercenary guilds will be a viable way forward for different organizations. I think there will be a lot of business to be had with that; and one of the systems in our trade agreements is creating an escrow for those particular type of arrangements that we're looking into. – Steven Sharif
- Economic relationships between nodes established by Mayors through the caravan system.
- An aspect of naval content.
- The value of stocks is influenced by world events and the performance of nodes, ארגונים חברתיים or guilds.
- There is no regulatory commission to restrict the purchase and sale of stocks.
- Housing will have a base price that scales with the number of citizens in the node.
- The developers are considering an auction-based method for listing new properties that become available for purchase when a node advances.
- Static housing and apartments can be listed and sold to other players.
There's no cap essentially in player originated sales. Those are determined essentially by supply and demand as it is within the game and there's no artificial barrier to how high that demand can go. – Steven Sharif
- Housing ownership can default back to the node if the owner fails to pay their property taxes. A balance and penalties will be charged to the new purchaser of the home in the manner of a "foreclosure process".
- Players will not be able to exceed their allotment of housing in the game.
This will allow players to transfer real property goods. This includes ... static housing, this includes apartments that they may own; and they can sell those because those will have a limited and finite quantity. – Steven Sharif
Rental and leasing concepts are currently under consideration.
Some concepts that we have is going to be rental or leases that could be had allowing players to kind of lease a property for a period of time where they will have control rights over utilizing storage based on the area, controlling the furniture or access point; all that kind of stuff. – Steven Sharif
- Ashes of Creation Press Kit.
- וִידֵאוֹ, 2017-04-30 (8:02).
- Unreal Engine Interview, 23 May 2017.
- שידור חי, 2017-05-05 (10:47).
- שידור חי, 2017-05-15 (10:32).
- שידור חי, 2018-01-18 (46:56).
- וִידֵאוֹ, 2017-04-30 (6:54).
- About Ashes of Creation.
- שידור חי, 2017-05-05 (16:36).
- שידור חי, 2020-07-31 (1:34:06).
- שידור חי, 2017-10-16 (59:39).
- שידור חי, 2019-05-30 (1:26:16).
- רֵאָיוֹן, 2020-07-08 (55:05).
- Know Your Nodes: Economic Node Type.
- שידור חי, 2020-10-30 (1:03:52).
- שידור חי, 2020-10-30 (1:04:59).
- שידור חי, 2017-05-05 (35:16).
- רֵאָיוֹן, 2020-07-08 (57:46).
- שידור חי, 2020-04-30 (1:14:44).
- Ashes of Creation Instagram, 19 August 2020.
- שידור חי, 2020-05-29 (1:00:57).
- שידור חי, 2020-10-30 (1:06:09).
- Ashes of Creation Store: Confectioner’s Delight.
- שידור חי, 2020-03-28 (1:04:49).
- Ashes of Creation - The visuals.
- שידור חי, 2017-05-19 (33:57).
- שידור חי, 2017-10-31 (28:58).
- The mighty beard!
- שידור חי, 2017-05-12 (53:08).
- שידור חי, 2017-05-05 (16:37).
- שידור חי, 2017-10-31 (30:34).
- שידור חי, 2017-05-05 (32:22).
- שידור חי, 2021-01-29 (1:14:53).
- וִידֵאוֹ, 2018-09-06 (3:53).
- שידור חי, 2018-07-09 (50:16).
- שידור חי, 2017-05-15 (13:06).
- רֵאָיוֹן, 2020-07-18 (52:57).
- רֵאָיוֹן, 2018-08-24 (4:15).
- רֵאָיוֹן, 2021-02-07 (16:05).
- Podcast, 2017-05-05 (43:05).
- רֵאָיוֹן, 2021-02-07 (19:00).
- שידור חי, 2020-05-29 (41:45).
- רֵאָיוֹן, 2018-12-06 (20:30).
- וִידֵאוֹ, 2020-05-31 (47:32).
- שידור חי, 8 April 2018 (AM) (23:18).
- רֵאָיוֹן, 2020-07-19 (41:32).
- שידור חי, 2020-10-30 (38:04).
- שידור חי, 2018-08-17 (10:54).
- שידור חי, 2020-06-26 (51:58).
- שידור חי, 2019-06-28 (1:23:31).
- שידור חי, 2020-05-29 (1:03:35).
- וִידֵאוֹ, 2019-07-16 (0:00s).
- שידור חי, 2017-05-15 (45:20).
- רֵאָיוֹן, 2017-01-20 (4:19).
- רֵאָיוֹן, 2018-05-11 (28:21).
- שידור חי, 2020-12-22 (1:13:51).
- Ashes of Creation Store: Ramstone Hauler.
- שידור חי, 2017-07-28 (19:43).
- וִידֵאוֹ, 2019-07-15 (2:12).
- שידור חי, 2020-04-30 (56:58).
- שידור חי, 2020-04-30 (58:05).
- שידור חי, 2017-08-23 (28:22).
- שידור חי, 8 April 2018 (AM) (15:46).
- שידור חי, 2020-05-29 (1:28:38).
- שידור חי, 2017-05-24 (32:07).
- שידור חי, 2020-08-28 (2:05:21).
- שידור חי, 2020-07-31 (1:31:11).
- שידור חי, 2017-07-18 (37:25).
- וִידֵאוֹ, 2017-04-30 (10:07).
- רֵאָיוֹן, 2020-07-20 (20:17).
- שידור חי, 2017-05-05 (8:22).
- שידור חי, 2017-05-05 (6:12).
- שידור חי, 2017-05-08 (20:41).
- שידור חי, 2017-07-18 (38:30).
- שידור חי, 2017-05-26 (26:00).
- רֵאָיוֹן, 2018-05-11 (24:18).
- שידור חי, 2019-06-28 (51:37).
- Podcast, 2018-04-23 (29:56).
- שידור חי, 2017-05-26 (50:00).
- שידור חי, 2020-03-28 (1:03:38).
- רֵאָיוֹן, 2020-03-27 (0:30).
- רֵאָיוֹן, 2018-05-11 (57:02).
- Blog: 10 facts about castle sieges in the MMORPG.
- שידור חי, 2020-08-28 (1:39:02).
- רֵאָיוֹן, 2021-02-07 (13:14).
- Podcast, 13 May 2017 (25:55).
- רֵאָיוֹן, 2020-07-18 (55:01).
- רֵאָיוֹן, 2020-07-29 (16:46).
- שידור חי, 2020-08-28 (2:05:07).
- רֵאָיוֹן, 2020-07-29 (15:04).
- שידור חי, 2017-05-05 (20:41).
- רֵאָיוֹן, 2020-07-19 (51:11).
- רֵאָיוֹן, 2018-10-20 (2:53:52).
- שידור חי, 2017-11-17 (38:35).
- Massively OP, 1 June 2017
- שידור חי, 2018-02-09 (20:40).
- רֵאָיוֹן, 2020-07-08 (48:30).
- רֵאָיוֹן, 2018-08-21 (40:44).
- רֵאָיוֹן, 2020-07-19 (1:10:55).
- רֵאָיוֹן, 2020-07-19 (1:08:22).
- רֵאָיוֹן, 2020-07-18 (27:11).
- שידור חי, 2017-05-24 (44:14).
- רֵאָיוֹן, 2020-07-19 (8:43).
- February 8, 2019 - Questions and Answers.
- רֵאָיוֹן, 2020-07-20 (21:57).
- שידור חי, 8 April 2018 (PM) (55:49).
- רֵאָיוֹן, 2020-07-18 (1:00:15).
- שידור חי, 2020-07-25 (46:08).
- שידור חי, 2020-12-22 (1:15:01).
- שידור חי, 2017-05-03 (35:25).
- Ashes of Creation Forums - Former Lineage 2 PvP'er wanting to discuss PvP loopholes.
- שידור חי, 2018-06-04 (39:15).
- City hall.
- שידור חי, 8 April 2018 (AM) (18:59).
- שידור חי, 2017-05-17 (30:53).
- Kickstarter - We Just Broke $1,500,000!
- שידור חי, 2017-05-17 (11:27).
- רֵאָיוֹן, 2018-10-20 (5:51).
- MMOGames interview, January 2017
- Node series part II – the Metropolis.
- שידור חי, 2020-06-26 (53:41).
- שידור חי, 2017-05-12 (52:01).
- שידור חי, 2017-05-12 (55:01).
- שידור חי, 2020-06-26 (47:32).
- שידור חי, 2020-06-26 (54:03).
- רֵאָיוֹן, 2020-07-08 (33:34).
- שידור חי, 2020-06-26 (1:02:12).
- שידור חי, 2020-06-26 (56:08).
- שידור חי, 2019-05-30 (1:23:41).